After the battle of Badr, the Jews of Bani Nadir accepted the fact that the Holy Prophet was the messenger of Allah whose advent has been clearly mentioned in their scripture and made a pledge not to help or abet the enemies of Islam.
The hypocrites had sympathized with the Jews of Bani Nadir, whose opposition had grown strong since the Muslim reverse at Uhad (when many well-known companions had fled), and had promised to side with them if it came to a collision with the Muslims; and to emigrate with them if they were forced to emigrate.
When the Holy Prophet visited their habitation to conduct an inquiry concerning of killing of some Muslims, they tried to kill him. Then, because of their treason and projected murder of the Holy Prophet, they were asked to leave the strategic position which they occupied, about 3 miles south of Madina, endangering the very existence of the Muslims:
- At first they disagreed, relying on their fortresses and their secret alliances with the pagans of Makka and the hypocrites among the Muslims.
- When the Muslims marched against the Bani Nadir and besieged them while they were in their strong towers, the hypocrites did nothing; and when at length they were exiled, the hypocrites did not go with them into exile.
- Some (of the Bani Nadir) went to Syria and some joined their brethren in Khaybar.
The Bani Nadir deserved punishment for treason and projected murder of the Holy Prophet, but their lives were spared, and they were allowed to carry away their goods and chattels.
“It is He Who got out the Unbelievers among the People of the Book from their homes at the first exile (of the forces). Little did ye think that they would get out: And they thought that their fortresses would defend them from Allah! But the (Wrath of) Allah came to them from quarters from which they little expected (it), and cast terror into their hearts, so that they destroyed their dwellings by their own hands and the hands of the Believers, take warning, then, O ye with eyes (to see)!” [59:al-hasyr,the exile:2]